Stereotypes and Images of Black Women in the Media

Hey Scholars!

      So this post is a topic I have discussed numerous times either as a lecture/presentation topic or in conversation. This is a topic that has come up many times. It is also a topic I do not mind discussing because as a black woman I am hyper aware of how the world around me perceives me/us. I am conscious of how images of us (black women) are projected and also how we as black women are either perpetuating stereotypes or using our power to overcome them.

 
                      



     Last summer, I took a Women's Studies class and the topic was Families and Society in Literature. All of the graduate students had to give a presentation on a topic involving some aspect of society in regards to families. So, I decided that I would discuss Black women, images, and stereotypes and how they affect the black family (community) as a whole.

     What are these images and stereotypes? Where are we seeing these images? Who is responsible for these images? Are their any efforts to overcome these images? How are we as black women working to (re)define ourselves?

     There are five images/stereotypes that will be discussed in this post. They are Mammy, Matriarch, Jezebel, Welfare Queen, and the Angry Black Woman (Sapphire).



                                                           (Photo Credit: 20th Century Fox)

(Photo Credit: Lionsgate)


(Photo Credit: Third World Cinema)


(Photo Credit: American International Pictures)



                                                       (Photo Credit: Lionsgate)


     Why are they still so relevant to our culture? Since the days of chattel slavery, these tropes have loomed over America's literary, social, and cultural consciousness for centuries. They have defined Black womanhood transcending race, class, and gender throughout the African diaspora.

Mammy

                                                 (Photo Credit: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer)
 
       The Mammy image can be attributed to female slaves performing domestic duties for the family of the slave owner. Historically, the media has portrayed her as having characteristics that suggest submissiveness towards her owner (during slavery) or employer (following Emancipation). Moreover, her behavior suggests satisfaction and comfort with her station in life, wherein she is consigned to performing domestic duties.

                                           (Photo Credit: Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures)

     Portrayals of Mammy depict her as an obese Black woman, of dark complexion, with very large physical assets. By doing this, male slave-owners could disavow their sexual interests in African American women.
Also, by characterizing Mammy as an asexual, maternal, and deeply religious woman, whose main task was caring for the master's children and running his household, the slave-owner found in her the perfect slave.
She was a loyal, faithful, but still an untrustworthy member of the family who always knew her place.

                                                    (Clip Credit: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer)

Matriarch

                                                 (Photo Credit: My Ty.Pe. Productions)

     From the 1960s to the 1990s, the matriarch was one of the main stereotypes about black women, taking the place of Mammy. She is a strong Black woman who acts as both mother and father to her children- either because the father has left or is not living up to his duties. She is pictured as dark, fat, and ugly, as acting and looking much like a man. 

                                                 (Photo Credit: 20th Century Fox)

     While mammy typifies the Black mother figure in white homes, the matriarch symbolizes the mother figure in Black homes. Black matriarchal families are seen as an outcome of racial oppression as well as poverty. 

                                                        (Photo Credit: Lionsgate)

Welfare Queen
                                                  (Photo Credit: Lionsgate)

     The term described economic dependency, the lack of a job and or income. It views black women as unwilling to work, unwilling to control their sex drive and unwilling to better themselves. 

                                              (Photo Credit: moviescreenshots.blogspot.com)

     The welfare queen is seen as living comfortably on welfare, raising a big family without a husband, and having many children with different fathers. The welfare queen is described as being content with taking American taxpayers hard earned money.

                                                   (Clip Credit: Lionsgate)

Jezebel

                                        (Photo Credit: filmposter.net)

     Whereas the Mammy, Matriarch and Sapphire images were decidedly asexual images, this stereotype image of the "bad Black girl" represented the undeniable sexual side of Black women. During slavery, this image was used to portray black woman as “sexually aggressive wet nurses.” Jezebel has been one of the main stereotypes in Hollywood films since the 1970s, especially with the popularity of Blaxploitation films.  

                                                               (Photo Credit: Lionsgate)

     This image portrays Black women as being loose, immoral, and oversexed. She is named after an evil queen in the Bible; a loose woman who wants sex all the time. She uses sex to draw men in to get what she wants.

                                                   (Clip Credit: American International Pictures)

Angry Black Woman (Sapphire)
   
                                                    (Photo Credit: Focus Features)

     She is everything the Mammy is not: bitchy, evil, hateful, and stubborn. Unlike the Mammy and Matriarch stereotypes, she has no specific physical characteristics other than her skin tone, which is usually on the darker side.  

                                                      (Photo Credit: Lionsgate)

     She always seems to have her hands on her hips while she is running her mouth – putting down her man, making everything into a fight, never taking anything lying down. This image is the reason why people think that black women are hard to get along with. 

                                                                  (Clip Credit: Lionsgate)


And the Oscar Goes To...

     When black women have won Oscars, the Academy has decided that these images deserve an award. Who makes up the Academy? The Academy of Arts and Sciences is predominantly male and 90% white. In Black Feminist Thought, Patricia Hill Collins argues hat “because the authority to define societal values is a major instrument of power, elite groups, in exercising power, manipulate ideas about Black womanhood. They do so by exploiting already existing symbols, or creating new ones.” The exploitation of Black womanhood through roles of mammies, matriarchs, and overly sexual, angry beings. 

(Photo Credit: Essence)
  
                                                   (Photo Credit: News One) 

                                                  (Photo Credit: Entertainment Weekly)

                                               
(Photo Credit: Getty Images)

                                                     
                                                       (Photo Credit: Wire Image)

     It is not a coincidence that the writers, directors, and producers of these films (Gone with the Wind, Monster's Ball, Dreamgirls, Precious, and The Help) are all white and male with the exception of Monster's Ball, Lee Daniels was the producer. Daniels was also the director of Precious and a producer along with Tyler Perry among others. 


                                        (Photo Credit: Sisters in Cinema)

   Black women filmmakers such as Ava DuVernay, Kasi Lemmons, Julie Dash, Gina Prince-Bythewood, and Euzhan Palcy has worked to overcome so many obstacles that comes with being black and female in Hollywood as well as using their craft to portray black women in roles that are not destructive to black womanhood. 

   Usually when I read or hear about a study done on black women I huff, puff, and roll my eyes because these so-called "studies" have not been based on some genuine scientific study. Recently, the National Center of Education Statistics have concluded that Black women are the most educated group in America based on college enrollment by race and gender. Yet, somehow, this story did not take off as it should have. However, a few years ago when a Psychology Today blogger by the name of Satoshi Kanazawa posted a piece entitled "A Look at the Hard Truths About Human Nature," this story was everywhere, for a long time. It was constantly discussed whether people were for or against it. In this post he stated that black women were the least physically attractive group of women. The post has since been removed but this Huffington Post article discusses it.    

Overcoming...

     Every year I look forward to the "Black Girls Rock" program on BET. I love how it demonstrates and reinforces the importance of black women supporting and loving one another as well as ourselves. It is great to see so many young black girls in the audience each year. It is so important that we pass this message down to them. The "My Black is Beautiful Campaign" is another example of black women celebrating their womanhood and creating a community of support for us. 

    One essential, critical, important lesson I took away from this during my research is that we have to stop allowing others to define us! As an Africana Womanist, a term coined by Dr. Clenora Hudson-Weems, I stand by the concepts of self-naming and self-defining. No one knows you more than you know yourself. With that being said, no one can define you. Audre Lorde once said “ If I didn't define myself for myself, I would be crunched into other people’s fantasies for me and eaten alive.”

   
                                          (Jill Scott- Golden courtesy of Hidden Beach Records)
   

   



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